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作者:爱博网站   |   时间:2020-03-16 20:13   |   浏览:94   

爱博网站|首页Cumminswillprovidetheentireelectrifiedpowersolution,aswellassomeofthemostcriticalcomponentsthathavethelargestimpactonperformance,qualityandpowerofthesystemtodeliverthemostvaluetoourcustomers.OurBatteryElectricVehicle(BEV)systemlaunchesin2019forbus,andourRangeExtendedElectricVehicle(REEV)systemlaunchesin2020forbus.Additionalofferingsforvariousotherapplicationsaresoontofollow.

Cumminsisinvestingintwoprimarytypesoffuelcells,ProtonExchangeMembrane(PEM)andSolidOxideFuelCells(SOFC),aswellashydrogenproductiontechnologiesinordertoprovideaseamlessstart-to-finishsolutiontocustomers.

Cumminswillprovidetheentireelectrifiedpowersolution,aswellassomeofthemostcriticalcomponentsthathavethelargestimpactonperformance,qualityandpowerofthesystemtodeliverthemostvaluetoourcustomers.OurBatteryElectricVehicle(BEV)systemlaunchesin2019forbus,andourRangeExtendedElectricVehicle(REEV)systemlaunchesin2020forbus.Additionalofferingsforvariousotherapplicationsaresoontofollow.

Cumminsisinvestingintwoprimarytypesoffuelcells,ProtonExchangeMembrane(PEM)andSolidOxideFuelCells(SOFC),aswellashydrogenproductiontechnologiesinordertoprovideaseamlessstart-to-finishsolutiontocustomers.

WhenseeingtheEarthfromspace,youexperiencemanyconflictingemotions.Atonce,it’safeelingofbothpowerandhelplessness.Fromthewindowofaspacecraft,youcanseethebeautyoftheEarth,humanity’sspacecraft,ouronlyhome—butyoucanalsoseehowit’schangedovertime. 

Inmy25yearsasanastronaut,Itraveledonsevenmissionstospace.ThetimeIspentwatchingandobservingtheEarthanditschangeshashadaprofoundeffectonmysenseofresponsibilityforhelpingtheplanet.Toseehomewhilebeingsofarfromhomeisthemostbeautifulthing—butit’sdeceivingtoseethisbeautifulplanetandrealizealltheturmoilthat’shappeningonthesurface. 

Overthecourseoftwodecades,IsawhowtheEarthhaschanged.IsawthecuttingoftherainforestintheAmazonbasin,firesraginginAfricaandthecontaminationofouroceansandair.Weareaspecieswithnoredundancy,soifsomethinghappenstoourplanet,webecomeahistorythatnoonecantell.It’squiteasoberingthought. 

Hydrogenfuelcellshavebeenusedfordecadesinspacecraft.Ashuttleinspaceisactuallyanelectricvehicle,andthatelectricityisproducedinafuelcellbyhydrogenandoxygen.Asabyproduct,fuelcellsalsoproducelargequantitiesofpureandcleanwater.Thisisthewaterwedrankinspace–thinkofthepossibilities!Now,thattechnologyhasmaturedandwe’rereadytouseittopowerthethingswedoeveryday,liketransit,shipping,packagedelivery,buildings,homes,andevenconstruction. 

EvenwiththemanyapplicationsCumminsisexploring,we’vejustbarelyscratchedthesurfaceofthepossibilitieswecanachievewiththispromisingtechnology.IenvisionhydrogenbeinginvolvedinallpowerandenergypurposesonEarth,includingcars,trains,ships,airplanesandspacecraft.Itcanbeameansofenergystorageinlocationslikethemoon,intheminingofasteroidsandonthesurfaceofMars.Instationaryapplications,itcanpowerbuildingsanddatacenters.It’snotanoverstatementtosaythathydrogenasapowersourcewilltransformlifeonEarthasweknowit. 

AsaCumminsboardmember,partofmyresponsibilitiesincludesthinkingaboutthelong-termfutureofthecompany.WhereisthecompanygoingWhereisCumminsgoingtobeafteranother100yearsWhileit’shardtotellthefuture,Ibelievewecanhelpshapeit,IknowthatCumminsisverywellpositionedtotakeadvantageofthisopportunitywithhydrogentechnologies,aglobalfootprinttodayandaplanetaryfootprinttomorrow. 

FranklinChangDíazisontheboardofdirectorsatCumminsInc.Asaboardmember,heisfocusedonrepresentingandprotectingtheinterestsofshareholdersandpositioningCumminsforthefuture.PriortoCummins,Díazspent25yearsworkingattheNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration(NASA),manningtheirshuttlesandworkingtobuildtheInternationalSpaceStation.HealsoservedasthedirectoroftheAdvancedSpacePropulsionLaboratoryattheJohnsonSpaceCenter,partofNASA’sMannedSpacecraftCenter,for12years.Díaziscurrently thechairmanandCEOofAdAstraRocketCompany,aU.S.spaceflightengineeringcompanybasedinHouston,Texas.

Cummins’customerscandependonarangeoftechnologiesfromdieselandnaturalgas,tofullyelectricandhydrogensolutions.Asthedemandforzero-emissiontransportationincreases,alternativetechnologiescontinuetobetherightsolutionforcustomersaroundtheglobe.Hydrogenfuelcellsarerecognizedasoneoftheinnovativesolutionsnecessaryforacarbon-neutralfuture,generatingenoughenergytopowerpassengertrains.

TheFrenchrailwaymanufacturerAlstomshowshowthesuccessfuldevelopmentofsuchahydrogentraincouldlooklike.Alstomisamongthefirstrailwaymanufacturersintheworldtodevelopapassengertrainbasedonsuchatechnology,withthefirsttrainsinregularservicerunninginthenorthernGermantownofBremervörde,andCummins’fuelcellandhydrogentechnologiesbusiness,formerlyknownasHydrogenics,suppliedthenecessaryfuelcells. 

In2015,Hydrogenics—nowpartofCummins—wasselectedasakeypartnerbyAlstomtodevelopandimplementhydrogenfuelcellsystemsforAlstom’siLint,theworld’sfirsthydrogenfuelcelltrain.ThetrainwasfirstpreviewedattheInnotransexhibitioninBerlinin2016,withthefirsttestdrivetakingplaceinGermanythefollowingyear.Witharangeofupto1000kilometerspereachhydrogentankfueling,thefuelcelltrainmatchesthemilesperfuelingperformanceofconventionalregionaltrains,withlowerenvironmentalimpactandlowernoiselevelswhilehavingatopspeedof140kilometersperhour. 

Ratherthanusingtheoverheadwiring,hydrogenfuelcelltechnologyisanalternativeapproachtoelectrifyingpassengertrainsusingexistingrailinfrastructure.Inthiscase,hydrogenfuelcellpowermodulesonthetopofthetraincarareattheheartofthesystemandprovidesufficientenergybycombininghydrogenandoxygen.Thefuelcellsworkbyextractingoxygenfromtheambientair,whilethestoragetankssupplythehydrogendemand.Thefuelcellsandthehydrogentanksaremountedontheroofofthetrain.Wheninmotion,thefuelcellpoweredpassengertrainemitsonlywatervapor,whichistheonlyby-productofthehydrogenandoxygenreactioninthefuelcell,atrulycleanenergyconversion.

SinceSeptember2018,twohydrogenfuelcelltrainshavebeensuccessfullyusedincommercialserviceinnorthernGermany,eachofwhichisequippedwithapprox.150seats.Sincetheprosperouslaunchofthehydrogenfuelcelltrains,increasinglymorerailwayoperatorshaveexpressedinterestintheemission-freealternative.Asaresult,AlstomannouncedatrialintheNetherlandswhichwilltestfurtherhydrogenpoweredtrainsinspring2020.Firstserialproductionof14iLints,Alstom’shydrogenpoweredtrain,willstartoperatingin2021inLowerSaxony.Additionally,Alstomwillsupply27hydrogentrainsuntiltheendof2022foroperationsintheRhine-Mainregion.ThereisinterestfromotherGermanfederalstatesandinotherEuropeancountriestousethetrainfornotelectrifiedtracks.Offeringthiskindofmobility,theFrenchmanufacturerisaworldwidepioneerforfuelcellmobilityinpassengertrainsandactivepromoterofsustainablemobility.

“ByprovidinghydrogenfuelcellsolutionsforpoweringpassengertrainsinEurope,wehaveprovenourcapabilitiesinthisfieldandprovenourabilitytopowerourcustomer’ssuccess.Tomeetchangingregulatorystandardsandfutureenvironmentalandenergygoals,weunderstandthatforusandourcustomerstobesuccessfuloverthelong-termwemusthaveabroadproductportfoliopoweredbymultipleenergysources.Providinghydrogenfuelcellsolutionsistakingusonestepfurthertomeettheevolvingneedsofourcustomers,”saidAmyAdams,VicePresident–FuelCells&HydrogenTechnologies. 

Cumminsisaglobalpowerleaderthatdesigns,manufactures,sellsandservicesdieselandalternativefuelenginesfrom2.8to95liters,dieselandalternative-fueledelectricalgeneratorsetsfrom2.5to3,500kW,aswellasrelatedcomponentsandtechnology.Cumminsservesitscustomersthroughitsnetworkof600company-ownedandindependentdistributorfacilitiesandmorethan7,200dealerlocationsinover190countriesandterritories.

Whenitcomestobatteryelectricvehicles,therearefourkeystoadoptionwithinthecommercialvehiclesector.InPart4 ofourfour-partblogseries,welookatthefinalhurdleanewtechnologymustovercome:Policiesandregulation. 

Inthisfourthpreviewblog,welookathowpolicyandregulationsregardingcommercialEVsmustbecarefullydevelopedincollaborationwithindustriesandinstitutions.Sustainability,afterall,isnotanissuelimitedtoanyonesector,andonlybydrawingontheinsightofexpertsinthetechnology,infrastructure,andeconomicsofEVs,aswellasend-usersandotherpolicymakers,willsuccessfulincentivestoadoptionbedesigned. 

Findingtherightfocuswillrequireongoingconversation,consultation,andcollaborationwithstakeholdersfromacrossthemobilityspace.Therangeofrouteshereisbroad:long-termzero-pollutiontargetswillsettheoveralldirectionoftravelforindustry;cross-industryworkinggroupswillestablishproventechnologicalstandards;policieswhichfund,andremovebarriersto,infrastructurerolloutwillcreateprogressonusability;sustainabilitystipulationsincontractsputouttotenderwilldemonstrateeconomicviabilityandcreateamarketforsustainablevehicles;collaborativeworkondatasharingwillimprovemonitoringandefficiency;andlinkingtaxrateswithemissionswillimprovereturn-on-investment. 

Whiletherangeofoptionsisdaunting,therearealreadyexamplesofbestpracticeemergingacrosstheworld.ArecentreportfromtheenvironmentalresearchgroupBellona,forexample,detailsthenatureofsomepolicyinitiativeswhicharealreadyseeingpositiveoutcomesinconstruction,whichcurrentlyaccountsfor23%ofglobalcarbondioxide(CO2)emissions. 

IntheNorwegiancapitalofOslo,forexample,thecity’smunicipaldeveloperhasoperatedaseriesofinitiativesinvolvingsettingminimumstandardsforbiddersoncontractsitputsouttotender.Thedeveloperadoptedthepolicythat‘whatcanberunonelectric,shallberunonelectric’–creatingthepotentialforamarketforelectrifiedconstructionequipment.Lookingahead,thecityanticipatesthatby2025allpublicconstructionsiteswilloperateemission-freemachineryandtransport. 

PartofthesuccessofOslo’sinitiative,besidesthedeterminationofstakeholderstomakeitwork,maybeinthephrasingofitspolicy.Byusingthephrasing‘whatcanberunonelectric’,thecityavoidsforcingconstructionfirmsintoinappropriateadoption(suchaselectrifyingwhatisnotyetsuitabletobeelectrified)andopensadialoguewiththemaboutwhatcanandcannotbeelectrified,workingcooperativelyonprogresstowardssustainability. 

Thisrequiresustounderstandtheirinfrastructuralrequirementsandmakethemclearlyactionable,tobringtheirtotalcostofownershipdowntoalevelwheretheycompetewithandexceedconventionalvehicles,andtoproducepolicywhichincentivizestheiradoption. 

ForCummins,theprocessoffindingtherightsolutionisalwaysacollaborativeeffort.Gettingitrightmeanshavingconversationsacrossstakeholdersinindustryandpolicy,aswellasend-users,todeeplyunderstandtheissuesandensuresuccessfulroll-out. 

Cumminsisaglobalpowerleaderthatdesigns,manufactures,sellsandservicesdieselandalternativefuelenginesfrom2.8to95liters,dieselandalternative-fueledelectricalgeneratorsetsfrom2.5to3,500kW,aswellasrelatedcomponentsandtechnology.Cumminsservesitscustomersthroughitsnetworkof600company-ownedandindependentdistributorfacilitiesandmorethan7,200dealerlocationsinover190countriesandterritories.

Atpresent,EVsareoftenmoreexpensivethantheirconventionally-poweredequivalents.Onereasonforthisisinherentmaterialcosts,withbatterymanufacturerequiringlargequantitiesoflithium.Yet,asprocessesarerefined,efficienciesarefound,andscaleincreases,themanufacturingcostsoflithium-ion(Li-ion)batteriesareexpectedtoreduce–andthereductionofthiscostwillbeamajorenablerforearlycommercialelectricvehicles(EVs)adoption.

Today,theeconomicdecision-makinginvolvedinpurchasingcommercialvehiclesisfamiliartoanyoneinvolvedinfleetmanagement.Itcanbebroadlydividedintocapitalexpenditure(theup-frontcostofthevehicleandinfrastructure),operatingexpenses,andthedaytodaycostsofrunningthevehiclesuchasfuelandmaintenancerequirements. 

EVadoptioncaninvolvesignificantoutlay,whichvarieswidelydependingonapplication.Whilethegrowingavailabilityofon-streetchargingpointscanbeleveragedforsomecommercialvehiclefleets,suchaslast-miledeliveryvans,forotherapplications,suchasbuses,ownedinfrastructureisnecessary.Newelectricfleetsmay,infact,demandentirelynewconfigurationsofbuildings.Chargingpointscanhoweverbeshared,meaningthattheupfrontcostcanbereduced.Inthisway,largeelectrificationprojectscandeliverabetterreturnoninvestmentthansmallerprojects. 

Fromanoperationalperspective,thetwomaincostareasareenergyandmaintenance.EnergycostsforEVsaredependentonelectricityprices,muchasfuelcoststodayareultimatelydependentonoilprices.Maintenancecostsmaybeminimizedthroughtheuseoftelematicstomonitorwearandtearandaccuratelypredictwhenservicingisrequired. 

Whilemajorcapitalexpenditureisclearlyinvolved,throughacombinationoffallingpricesovertimeandefficiencysavingsfromvehiclessharingchargingpoints,EVscanbe–andinthecaseofdeliverytrucksalreadyare–economicallycompetitivewithdieseloptions.

Cumminsisaglobalpowerleaderthatdesigns,manufactures,sellsandservicesdieselandalternativefuelenginesfrom2.8to95liters,dieselandalternative-fueledelectricalgeneratorsetsfrom2.5to3,500kW,aswellasrelatedcomponentsandtechnology.Cumminsservesitscustomersthroughitsnetworkof600company-ownedandindependentdistributorfacilitiesandmorethan7,200dealerlocationsinover190countriesandterritories.

Muchoftheinfrastructurerequiredtopracticallyuseanelectrifiedvehicle(EV)isalreadyinplace:roads,trafficlights,carparksandsystemsofvehicleregistrationareallagnosticastohowthevehiclestheyaccommodatearepowered. 

Thewayenergyisdeliveredtovehicles,however,mustchangeintandemwiththemovetoEVs,replacingthewell-developednetworkofoil-basedfueldeliverywecurrentlyrelyonwithchargingpointsandapowergridthatcansupportthem.Inthissecondpreviewblogofthe‘FutureofFleets’whitepaper,welookathowworkoninfrastructurewillenableelectriccommercialvehicleadoption.Ifyouarereadingthisseriesforthefirsttime,youcanfindpartonehere. 

Foratypicalelectricpassengercar,fullyrechargingfromastandardU.K.poweroutletwilltakeover10hours.Forcommercialvehicles,thislevelofdowntimeintroducessignificantcosts–exacerbatedbythefactthatcommercialvehiclesareoftenlargerandheavier,andthereforerequirelargerbatterieswhichtakelongertorecharge. 

Forsituationswhereacertainnumberofvehicle-hoursismandatedbytheoperation,thisdowntimefactorhasarangeofconsequencesforinfrastructuredesign.Ifthevehiclesarebeingchargedatacentralizedhub,forexample,eachvehicleneedsaparkingspacefortheperiodofcharging.Here,halvingthechargingtimeofavehiclemeanshalvingthephysicalspaceneededbytherecharginginfrastructure,aswellashalvingthenumberofchargepointswhichneedtobepurchasedandinstalled. 

TheenergyforEVrecharging,ofcourse,alsocomesfromsomewhere.EVswillgettheirenergyeitherfromon-sitepowergeneration,suchassolarandwindpower,orfromthenationalgrid.Forenergycompanies,thisrepresentsachallengeas,especiallyatpeakchargingtimes,theoveralldemandonpowerstationsasmorevehiclesbecomebattery-poweredincreases.Onesolutiontothiswillbetousesmartchargingsolutions,whichsupplyenergyovernight,whentheelectricitydemandfromhouseholdsandindustryislower. 

WidespreadadoptionofEVsoffersasurprisingbenefit:thelargecapacityofvehiclebatteriescreatesthepossibilityforvehiclesnotcurrentlyinusetohelpbalancenationalpowersupplywithdemand,whichwillbecomeincreasinglyimportantaslesspredictablerenewableenergysourcesbecomeamoredominantpartofourenergymix.Makingthiswin-winpossiblerequiresfurthercollaborationbetweencommercialvehicleoperators,utilities,legislatorsandtechnologyvendors. 

Cumminsisaglobalpowerleaderthatdesigns,manufactures,sellsandservicesdieselandalternativefuelenginesfrom2.8to95liters,dieselandalternative-fueledelectricalgeneratorsetsfrom2.5to3,500kW,aswellasrelatedcomponentsandtechnology.Cumminsservesitscustomersthroughitsnetworkof600company-ownedandindependentdistributorfacilitiesandmorethan7,200dealerlocationsinover190countriesandterritories.