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Cumminswillprovidetheentireelectrifiedpowersolution,aswellassomeofthemostcriticalcomponentsthathavethelargestimpactonperformance,qualityandpowerofthesystemtodeliverthemostvaluetoourcustomers.OurBatteryElectricVehicle(BEV)systemlaunchesin2019forbus,andourRangeExtendedElectricVehicle(REEV)systemlaunchesin2020forbus.Additionalofferingsforvariousotherapplicationsaresoontofollow.

Cumminsisinvestingintwoprimarytypesoffuelcells,ProtonExchangeMembrane(PEM)andSolidOxideFuelCells(SOFC),aswellashydrogenproductiontechnologiesinordertoprovideaseamlessstart-to-finishsolutiontocustomers.

Cumminswillprovidetheentireelectrifiedpowersolution,aswellassomeofthemostcriticalcomponentsthathavethelargestimpactonperformance,qualityandpowerofthesystemtodeliverthemostvaluetoourcustomers.OurBatteryElectricVehicle(BEV)systemlaunchesin2019forbus,andourRangeExtendedElectricVehicle(REEV)systemlaunchesin2020forbus.Additionalofferingsforvariousotherapplicationsaresoontofollow.

Cumminsisinvestingintwoprimarytypesoffuelcells,ProtonExchangeMembrane(PEM)andSolidOxideFuelCells(SOFC),aswellashydrogenproductiontechnologiesinordertoprovideaseamlessstart-to-finishsolutiontocustomers.

"Withmorethan60yearsofexperienceinengineairhandlinginnovation,CTTisuniquelypositionedtointegrateETVwithenginesystemsthatprovidecustomerswithacompletesystemlevelsolution.Cummins’knowledgeofairhandlingsystemscombinedwithexperienceincontrolsystemstechnologyhasachievedacosteffective,highperformingETVtomeettheneedsofourcustomers," commentedMattFranklin,Director–ProductManagement&Marketing.

爱博网站|首页Initially,thelaunchoftheETVwasdevelopedformedium-dutyengineapplicationsinIndiaandChina,andhassincegrowntoBrazil,EuropeandMexico.ETVapplicationsincludeon-highwaytruck,transitbus,refuseandtippertrucks. 

TheETVnotonlyhelpsenginemanufacturersmeetstringentemissionrequirements,butalsooffersflexibledesignneeds.Cummins’OriginalEquipmentManufacturers(OEM)haveoptionstoconfiguretheproductwithheatshields,coolantfittingsandlocatorfeatures.BespokeETVproductscanbedesignedwithcustomizedflapdiameterfortailoredpressurecontrolanduniqueendconnectionsforeasyintegration.TheseflexibledesignofferingshelpOEM’smeettheirpackagingandperformancerequirements. 

"Wehavevalidatedtheproductextensivelyonmorethan130applicationswithfivedifferentenginefamilies.Attheendof2019,thetotalfieldmileageaccumulationexceededtenmillionkilometers-equivalenttocirclingtheearth250times.TheextensiveengineandvehiclevalidationpursuedbyCTThasensuredareliableanddurableproduct," explainedBrettFathauer,ExecutiveDirector,Research&Engineering. 

Amodularservicestrategywasalsoputinplacetoallowselectedcomponentstobeserviced,ratherthanreplacingtheentireETV.Thus,loweringthetotalcostofownership.Additionally,CTThasleverageditsglobalsupplychaintominimizeproductcostsandsupportglobalmarketneeds.TheETViscurrentlyinproductionandisavailablenowforcustomers. 

Cumminsisaglobalpowerleaderthatdesigns,manufactures,sellsandservicesdieselandalternativefuelenginesfrom2.8to95liters,dieselandalternative-fueledelectricalgeneratorsetsfrom2.5to3,500kW,aswellasrelatedcomponentsandtechnology.Cumminsservesitscustomersthroughitsnetworkof600company-ownedandindependentdistributorfacilitiesandmorethan7,200dealerlocationsinover190countriesandterritories.

Strengtheningitsproductcatalogue,CTThasrevitalizedtheHE600platformbydeliveringsignificantimprovementsonperformanceanddurability.Bycombiningyearsofengineeringexperienceinturbinewheelandimpellerdesign,overallturbochargerefficiencyhasincreasedmorethanfourpercentwhileofferingaproductthatismorerobust.

"Wehaveusedadvancedaerodynamictechniquestodesignanewimpellerandcompressorhousingthatoffersuptofivepercenthigherefficiencyintheflowrangeofourkeycustomerapplications.Inaddition,anewturbinestagewasdevelopedanddesignedwiththebenefitofanalysistoolsthatenhanceperformance,whilestilloptimizingthermalstressandimprovingfatiguelife," explainedCharlesKing-Cox,CompressorandTurbineStageDirectorforCumminsTurboTechnologies.

TheturbochargershaveincreasedtheflowrangetohaveanoverlapwiththelargerHE800series.CustomersusingHE800cannowswitchtoamorecompactHE600thathasincreasedmap-width,higherperformanceandimproveddurabilitytohelpmeetdownsizingrequirementstosaveoncosts. 

Thenewproductdesignincorporatesaerodynamicefficiency,surpassingthecompetitionwithhighefficiencyanddurability.ProductionforthenewHE600willbeginin2020andcatertoawiderangeofcustomerapplications,includingon-highwaytrucks,generators,industrialmarketsandmarinemarkets. 

"Wearecontinuouslyworkingtoimproveourproductline-andtheHE600isnodifferent.Thisproductwillexceedperformanceexpectationsandprovideincreasedvalueforourcustomersacrosstheglobe," commentedMattFranklin,Director-ProductManagementandMarketingatCumminsTurboTechnologies. 

Cumminsisaglobalpowerleaderthatdesigns,manufactures,sellsandservicesdieselandalternativefuelenginesfrom2.8to95liters,dieselandalternative-fueledelectricalgeneratorsetsfrom2.5to3,500kW,aswellasrelatedcomponentsandtechnology.Cumminsservesitscustomersthroughitsnetworkof600company-ownedandindependentdistributorfacilitiesandmorethan7,200dealerlocationsinover190countriesandterritories.

NovelSolutionsforMaterialsEngineeringIncreaseddemandsarebeingplaceduponturbochargersasaresultofevermorestringentemissionsregulations,anecessityforimprovedproductperformanceandreliabilityandarequirementforawiderproductoperatingrange.Consequently,agreaterlevelofstressisplaceduponthematerialsfromwhichturbochargersaremanufactured.Inordertoachieveallofthenecessarylegislationandcustomerrequirements,novelsolutionstomaterialsengineeringchallengesarebeingdeveloped.

Twosuchchallengesfacedbytheturbochargerindustryarehightemperaturetribologyandthecorrosionanderosionenvironmentgeneratedbylongrouteexhaustgasrecirculation(LREGR).CumminsTurboTechnologieshasdevelopedinnovativematerialsengineeringsolutionsusingsurfacetreatmentsappliedtocosteffectivesubstrates,ratherthanutilisingmuchmoreexpensive,exoticalloys.

HighTemperatureTribologyAsaconsequenceofexperiencingexcessivevaneandslotwearwhilstinserviceandexperiencingtemperatures500°C,athermochemicaldiffusionsurfaceengineeringsolutionwasdevelopedforvariablegeometrysystems.

Suchtechnologywasgeneratedusingasystematicapproachtotribologicaltestingandanalysis,whichwaspioneeredbyCumminsTurboTechnologiesasshowninFigure2.AftercomprehensiveevaluationoftheproblemusingtheexpertiseatCumminsTurboTechnologies,itwasdeterminedthatduringparticularoperatingconditionstheconventionaluncoatednozzleandshroudplateexperiencedhighlevelsofabrasivewearandelevatedfrictionforces.

Inordertosolvetheproblem,amulti-disciplinarycrossfunctionalteamatCumminsTurboTechnologiesusedtherelevantcustomerandregulatoryrequirementstoidentifyanddevelopthesurfacetreatmentconcept.Usingcutting-edgetechniques,thefundamentalmechanicalandphysicalpropertiesofthethermochemicaldiffusiontreatmentweredetermined.Subsequently,thesurfacetreatmentwascharacterisedintermsoffrictionandwearperformanceusingatribometer,whichsimulatedthevariablegeometrynozzletoshroudplateinterfaceandassociatedoperatingconditions.

Thesurfacetreatmentwastestedonaturbocharger,onbothgasstandandengine,withtheresultscorrelatedtotribometer-basedtestingtoensureconsistencyofperformance.Thisapproachtotheproblemensuredthatarobustengineeringsolutionwasidentifiedandimplementedintoproduction;theresultantpositiveimpactonnozzlevanewearperformancecanbeobservedinFigure3.

LongRouteExhaustGasRecirculationTheturbochargercompressorstage,whichincludesthecompressorwheelandcover(Figure4),issubjectedtoacorrosiveanderosiveenvironmentwhenanengineisoperatingLREGR.ThechemistryandpHofthecondensatepresentinthecompressorstagevariesdependingonengineoperatingconditionsandthechemistryofthefuel.Furthermore,thearchitectureoftheLREGRsystemdictatesthedensityandsizeoferosiveparticlestowhichthecompressorstageissubjected.

Inordertominimisethewearandcorrosionobservedonthecompressorwheelandcoverasaresultofinteractionwithcondensateanderosiveparticles,surfacetreatmentsweredevelopedforthetwocomponents.Numerousconceptsforbothcomponentswereidentifiedusingamulti-disciplinarycrossfunctionalteamatCumminsTurboTechnologies,usingregulatoryandcustomerrequirementsasaguideline.

Suchexperimentsutilisedsurfacetreatedtestbarsandalsocomponentsinordertocorrelatethedatafromfundamentallaboratorytoturbocharger-basedtesting.TheacquireddatawasanalysedusingtheexpertiseofCumminsTurboTechnologiesandvariousadvancedtechniques,withtheresultsinputintoacomprehensivescoringmatrixinordertoselectthemostappropriatesolutionforthetworespectivecomponents.

Theprocessdevelopedforthecompressorwheelwasofananodisingtype,whereasapolymericcoatingwasdevelopedforthecompressorcover.Asaresultoftheresearchanddevelopmentworkconducted,thesetechnologieshavebeenproventosignificantlyreducethewearandcorrosionobservedoncompressorwheelsandcoverssubjectedtoLREGRenvironments.AcomparisonofuntreatedandsurfacetreatedcompressorwheelsandcoverscanbeobservedinFigure5.

Cumminsisaglobalpowerleaderthatdesigns,manufactures,sellsandservicesdieselandalternativefuelenginesfrom2.8to95liters,dieselandalternative-fueledelectricalgeneratorsetsfrom2.5to3,500kW,aswellasrelatedcomponentsandtechnology.Cumminsservesitscustomersthroughitsnetworkof600company-ownedandindependentdistributorfacilitiesandmorethan7,200dealerlocationsinover190countriesandterritories.

Therearenumeroustribologicalinterfaces,commonlytermedtribosystems,withinaturbocharger.Someofthese,suchastherotorbearingsystem,arelubricatedandoperateattemperatureslessthan200°C.Thevariablegeometryandwastegatesystems(Figures1&2)areexamplesofhightemperaturetribologicalinterfaceswithinaturbochargerwhicharesubjecttotemperaturesbetween300°Cand800°Cbutarenotlubricated.

Irrespectiveofthenatureofthetribosystem,itisvitaltoselecttheappropriatecombinationofmaterialswhichprovidethedesiredfrictionandwearbehaviourfortheinterface.Forthatreason,extensiveresearchanddevelopmentisconductedonthistopicinordertooptimisethetribologicalperformanceofthesystemandtodeterminethereliabilityanddurabilityofthecomponentswheninservice.

Withinhightemperaturetribosystemssuchasthevariablegeometryandwastegatemechanisms,turbineinlettemperaturesignificantlyaffectstribologicalperformance.Thisisbecauseforagivenmaterialathightemperature,therateofoxidationandmechanicalpropertiesvarycomparedtowhenatroomtemperature.Therefore,materialswhichfindusewithinhightemperaturetribosystemsareusuallyofhighcostduetotheirexoticchemicalcomposition,whichisrequiredtoprovideoxidationstabilitywhilstalsoaffordingsufficientmechanicalproperties,frictionalresponseandwearbehaviour.Recently,therehasbeenincreasedfocusonthedevelopmentofmaterialsthatofferacostreductionyetsimilartribologicalperformancecomparedtothemoreconventionalsubstratesusedathightemperature.Asaresult,extensivetestingandanalysisisconductedbyCumminsTurboTechnologiesinordertounderstandandvalidatethecapabilitiesofsuchmaterialswithinturbochargerproducts.Thefrictionandwearcharacteristicsofhightemperatureinterfaceswithinaturbochargeraretraditionallyestablishedthroughcomponentbasedexperimentation.UsingaresearchanddevelopmentapproachfoundedonthefundamentalsofMaterialsScience,CumminsTurboTechnologiesisabletoselectpreferredmaterialcombinationswithconfidencepriortocompletionofconsiderablymoreexpensiveandtimeconsumingcomponentbasedtesting.

Inthisresearch,ahightemperaturetribometerwasemployedinordertosimulatethetribologicalinterfacebetweenawastegateshaftandbushwithinaturbocharger.Suchsimulationishighlycomplexandassuch,itwasessentialthatCumminsTurboTechnologiesutilisedtheirin-houseexpertisetoensurethatthemodelledtribosystemwasrepresentativeoftheengineeringinterface.TheextensiveknowledgeandskillbaseofengineersatCumminsTurboTechnologieswasalsousedtoevaluatetestsamplesfrombothfundamentalandturbocharger-basedexperiments.Extensiveanalysisoftestsampleswasconductedusinghighlycomplexmethodsinordertocharacterisethesubstrateswithregardstosurfacetopography,tribochemistryandwear.ThismethodologyallowedCumminsTurboTechnologiestodeterminewhyparticularmaterialsandcombinationsofmaterialspossessedsuperiorperformanceatspecificoperatingconditions.

Afundamentalapproachtocharacterisationofmaterialfrictionandwearperformancehasnumerousbenefits:Asignificantreductionincostcomparedtocomponent-basedtesting,sincetestpartsdonotneedtobeincomponent-formImprovementintheefficiencyoftheproductdevelopmentprocess,sincetribometer-basedexperimentationisanacceleratedtestandresultscanbeobtainedmuchfasterthantraditionalcomponent-basedvalidationReductionincomplexityandmarkedimprovementsindataqualitycomparedtocomponent-basedtestingHighTemperatureTribologicalPerformanceofWastegateShaftandBushMaterialsFourmaterialcombinationswereselectedfortestingbasedontheirsuitabilityfortheapplicationintermsofcost,corrosionbehaviourandpredictedtribologicalperformance(Table1).

Allofthematerialcombinationsweresubjecttofundamentaltribologicaltestswhichwereconductedat600°C,850°Cand950°C.Thewearperformanceofthematerialcombinationswasdeterminedusinganopticalmeasurementtechnique.Subsequently,therationalebehindwhythematerialsprovidedtheobservedperformancewasdeterminedusinghighresolutionsurfaceanalysistechniquesandtheR&DexpertiseofCumminsTurboTechnologiesinordertocharacterisethesubstratesandacquirethegreatestpossibledataquality.Datacorrelationbetweentribometerandcomponent-basedexperimentswassuccessfullyconductedinordertoensurethatthefundamentaltestswererelevantandprovidedtheappropriatelevelofdataandconfidencepriortoconductingmuchmoreexpensiveandcomplexcomponent-basedexperiments.

ThisfundamentalapproachtoMaterialsScienceresearchanddevelopmenthassignificantlyimprovedtheanalysis-leddesignandtestingcapabilitiesofCumminsTurboTechnologies,resultinginthedevelopmentanddeliveryofsuperiortechnologiestoourcustomers.Theanalysis-ledtestingmethodologyprovidesgreaterdataquality,improvedefficiencyoftheproductdevelopmentprocessandreductionincostofMaterialsScienceresearchanddevelopment.Usingtheexperimentalandanalyticaltechniquesasdescribedabove,CumminsTurboTechnologiesisdevelopinghighperformancematerialcombinationswhichaddressthespecificrequirementsforlightdutytohighhorsepowerturbochargerapplications.

Cumminsisaglobalpowerleaderthatdesigns,manufactures,sellsandservicesdieselandalternativefuelenginesfrom2.8to95liters,dieselandalternative-fueledelectricalgeneratorsetsfrom2.5to3,500kW,aswellasrelatedcomponentsandtechnology.Cumminsservesitscustomersthroughitsnetworkof600company-ownedandindependentdistributorfacilitiesandmorethan7,200dealerlocationsinover190countriesandterritories.

Thedebatearoundturbochargerandenginetechnologiesintheoff-highwaysectorhashistoricallybeenonethatfocusesonreliabilityanddurability.Operatorsinthesemarketsneedtominimisethedowntimeoftheirequipmenttoensurethereisn’tacommercialimpactontheirbusinesses.

Forexample,miningcompaniesfacethechallengethattheyconsistentlyneedtoidentifyandpreventissuesinadvanceandpre-scheduleperiodsofrepairtomitigateagainstequipmentfailures,whichmaythenimpactontheabilityofotherstationstooperateeffectively.Althoughthisremainsavitalconsiderationforthesector,therearelikelytobeotherchangesinthemarketthatOriginalEquipmentManufacturers(OEMs)ofminingmachineryneedtopreparefor,toensurethattheircustomersarereadyforthefuture.Otheroff-highwayapplicationsfacesimilarissueswithequipmentdowntimehavingadirectimplicationontheiroperationalefficiencies.

Whereturbochargersfortheoff-highwaymarkethavefocusedoncreatingthemostreliableanddurablesolutionspreviously,abiggerpriorityfortheon-highwaymarketincontrasthasbeencompliancewithenvironmentallegislation.Governmentlegislationhasbeeninplaceformanyyearstoensurethatvehiclesarecontinuallyimprovingtheirfuelemissionsandturbochargertechnologyisaprimaryconsiderationinmeetingthosetargets.Althoughdifferentregionsaroundtheworldareatvaryingstagesofthis,thelegislationdoesexistatagloballevelandturbochargermanufacturershavebeenpreparingforthisforanumberofyears.

Thishasledtoanincreaseinfocusforgovernmentswhowillneedtoassesstheoff-highwaymarketandanalysehowmachineryandequipmentcanachieveagreaterreductionintheiremissionstobringtheminlinewithon-highway.Withincreasingcostsoffuel,turbochargermanufacturersalsoneedtoaddresshowtheirtechnologiescanincreasetheefficiencyoffuelinbothonandoff-highway.Thankfullywehavereachedthepointatwhichturbochargertechnologiescanreduceemissionswithoutreducingqualityorworkabilityintheoff-highwaysector.

Asgovernmentscontinuetheireffortstowardsalowcarboncommunity,itisonlynaturalthatothervehiclesandfuel-consumingmachinery(whetherdieselorgas)willneedtobeaddressedmorerigorously.Althoughlegislationexistsforoff-highwaysectors,especiallywhereequipmentisinuseona24/7basis,theywillneedtolookatallaspectsoftheenginetodeterminewaysofreducingemissionsbyamoresignificantpercentage.Itmayseemthatallthehardworkhasbeendonefromyearsofon-highway‘practice’,butinevitablytherearechallengestoapplyingtechnologiesdesignedforon-highwayintoanoff-highwayenvironment–thedemandsandusageoftheequipmentissodifferentanditisn’tasimplecaseofdeployingthesamesolutions.

Fuelconsumptionisdeterminedbythewaythatthefuelisburnedinthecylinderandthereareanumberofwaysthatwecanadapttheturbochargertocreatebothacleanerandmoreefficientexhaust.Fuelefficiencyisthenewpriorityfortheon-highwaysectorand,whilepreviousemissionslegislationdrovenewtechnologies,futureemissionslegislationandrisingfuelcostswilldrivefueleconomybychangingtheconstrainttoCO2reductionratherthanNOx.Thiswillnaturallybeapriorityforoff-highwayaswell,particularlywhensectorssuchasminingusetheirequipmentforcontinuousperiodsoftimewithoutabreak.

Theelementsthatcandeterminetheamountoffuelconsumedwithinsuchequipmentincludethevariationinspeedandload.Inthehighhorsepowermarketthereisusuallyavariationinoneortheother,andinminingthisislikelytobeintheload.

ResearchanddevelopmentexpertsatCumminsTurboTechnologieshavespentmanyyearsdevelopingthesesolutions,andwearealreadylookingaheadtothefuturerequirementsofthemarketsothatweareabletomeetfuturedemandassoonasitisrequired.

AtCumminsTurboTechnologies,werigorouslytestandtrialtechnologiesinarangeofenvironmentsthroughoutthedesignphasetoensurethattheyarefitformarketandmeetstringentemissionsstandardswhileretainingtheirreliabilityanddurability.Wealsospendtimegettingundertheskinofhowtheequipmentwillbeusedsothattechnologiessuittheoperator’susage.OperatingaspartofCumminsComponentsgroup,weareuniquelypositionedtotodesign,testandsupplyintegratedsystemsolutionstooptimiseefficiencyofturbomachineswithaftertreatmentandfiltering,whichhelpsdeliverperformance,emissionsreductionandrobustnessinharshenvironments.

CumminsTurboTechnologieshavebeenabletoutilisethetechnologiesfromouron-highwayproducttooptimisefortheoff-highwaymarketandthereforeachievegreatersavingsonemissionsandfuelefficiency.Forexample,thenewgenerationofturbochargersfor16litreandaboveapplications,series800/900/1000hasincorporatedthelatestturbochargercomponentry,whichwillimprovetheefficiencyoftheturbochargerby10%*andareengineeredtomeetthediversedutycyclesofthisenginerange.

Althoughwedon’tneedtogobacktothedrawingboardonthetechnologiesthatwecouldusetoreduceemissions,wedoneedtoundergoaperiodofbespoketestingforsectorspecificuses–oftentheturbochargerisputunderfargreaterstrainandisusedcontinuouslyintheoff-highwaymarket-anditisinevitablethatadjustmentswillneedtobemade.

Inessence,CumminsTurboTechnologiesanticipatesmanychangesaheadforenginemanufacturersfortheoff-highwaymarkets.Weneedtobepreparedforfuturelegislationandconsiderthechallengesthesesectorswillfacewhendevelopingthesetechnologies.Weneedtoconsiderthecostimplicationsforminingoperatorsinensuringtheirmachinerytickstheemissionsbox,whilefuelcostscontinuetosoar.Moreimportantly,wemustnotlosesightofthecorefundamentalconcernofthesector–tocontinuetominimisedowntime.Ourjob,andchallengeforthefutureasturbochargermanufacturers,istocreatetechnologiesthataddressthesetrendsinthesector,butcontinuetoperformrobustlyandremainreliableanddurable.

Cumminsisaglobalpowerleaderthatdesigns,manufactures,sellsandservicesdieselandalternativefuelenginesfrom2.8to95liters,dieselandalternative-fueledelectricalgeneratorsetsfrom2.5to3,500kW,aswellasrelatedcomponentsandtechnology.Cumminsservesitscustomersthroughitsnetworkof600company-ownedandindependentdistributorfacilitiesandmorethan7,200dealerlocationsinover190countriesandterritories.